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    • Insulin resistance - risk factors, prevention and tables with food glycemic index

      Insulin resistance - risk factors, prevention and tables with food glycemic index

      Insulin is responsible for storing fat in the cells, in many cases for weight gain and a number of health problems. Therefore, it is important to keep your insulin levels within normal limits. ...

      What is insulin resistance?
      Insulin resistance is often called a "pre-diabetic condition" in which cells in the body cannot absorb glucose well from the blood. As a result, the pancreas responds by producing more insulin.

      How does this happen?

      With frequent rises in blood sugar, insulin also rises frequently. This causes the cells' insulin receptors to gradually become accustomed to the high levels of insulin. At some point, the receptors begin to lose their sensitivity. This is exactly what happens with insulin resistance - the pancreas produces more insulin and the cells stop responding. As a result, blood sugar is not absorbed and this leads to a permanent increase in blood sugar.

      Symptoms and diagnosis of insulin resistance
      Insulin resistance is not easily diagnosed. This condition is not detected by a standard blood count and can often even develop insulin resistance without high blood sugar.

      Some of the common signs that accompany insulin resistance that you should watch out for are:

      High blood pressure (above 130/85 mmHg)
      High blood sugar levels
      Increased waist circumference (for men - over 100 cm and for women - over 88 cm)
      Elevated triglyceride levels (≥ 150 mg / dl);
      Low levels of "good" HDL cholesterol (If you suspect insulin resistance, your doctor will most likely refer you for a test to diagnose prediabetes and possible high blood sugar. This is most often done by taking a blood sample to identify insulin levels. It is the elevated blood sugar levels that will warn of the presence of insulin resistance. Various tests are possible, some of which are done on an empty stomach (at least 8 hours after a meal), others 30 minutes, an hour, two or more after a glucose intake. It is important for the treating physician to pinpoint the method of examination for the most accurate diagnosis.

      What is the relationship between insulin resistance and diabetes?
      The condition in which blood sugar begins to remain high and in the fasting state is most often diagnosed with type 2 diabetes.

      The good news is that early detection of insulin resistance could prevent the development of this type of diabetes.

      What are the other complications that can be caused by poorly controlled insulin resistance?
      If left unchecked, high blood sugar levels can lead to a number of other health problems such as:

      kidney disease
      nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
      peripheral arterial disease
      cardiovascular disease
      hormonal imbalance
      impaired metabolism
      impaired reproductive health
      What are the risk factors for developing insulin resistance?
      Obese people, especially in the abdomen, are among the most at risk of developing insulin resistance.

      The risk also increases with age, family history, in women with polycystic ovary syndrome or gestational diabetes (diabetes that occurred during pregnancy). Other factors include smoking, stress, unhealthy diet, sedentary lifestyle and lack of physical activity.

      Prevention and insulin resistance
      The good news is that you can take control of your hands to protect yourself from insulin resistance or its complications.

      Changing the diet

      Proper nutrition remains the best prevention against insulin resistance, prediabetes and type 2 diabetes.

      It is very important to eat foods that help fight systemic inflammation leading to type 2 diabetes. Olive oil, turmeric, brightly colored vegetables and fruits, legumes, nuts and chromium-rich foods come to the rescue.

      Do not deprive yourself of fiber from whole grains.

      Say goodbye to processed sugary foods rich in sugar and white flour pasta.

      Aim to eat foods with a low or medium glycemic index - they maintain lower blood sugar levels, and therefore a lower level of insulin needed for processing. We have paid special attention below in this article to the glycemic index of food and how it affects blood sugar levels.

      Last but not least, limit alcohol consumption.

      Maintain a healthy weight

      Keeping your weight within healthy limits is a key point in preventing insulin resistance or developing type 2 diabetes.

      The first and most important step in reducing the risk of developing diabetes is to soothe systemic sources of inflammation. You may be guessing that fat is the main source of inflammation throughout the body. This is why it is especially important to include weight control in your list of techniques for dealing with inflammation.

      It is necessary to keep the waist circumference within healthy limits, to maintain normal blood pressure and cholesterol levels within limits.

      Regular physical activity

      Daily exercise is also of great importance when it comes to prevention. It is enough to start walking for 30 minutes a day and this will help you maintain a healthy weight, reduce blood sugar and cholesterol levels, increase your insulin sensitivity.

      If you don't have time, see how to include regular exercise in your daily routine: Easy sport

      Laboratory researches

      In people at risk of insulin resistance, prevention also requires control laboratory tests. Timely diagnosis will significantly reduce complications in the long run.

      You can also reduce the risk of developing insulin resistance by changing unhealthy habits such as smoking and reducing stress.

      Insulin resistance - drug treatment and supplements

      Once you have received the test results, your doctor will prescribe treatment at your discretion. In all cases, however, you will achieve better results if you combine treatment with a change in your diet and lifestyle.

      Your attitude to this disease is also important, do not think that a temporary change in diet will help you to permanently control your blood sugar levels. You need to build new eating habits that will become your new way of life.

      Glycemic index of food and blood sugar levels
      Glycemic index of foods

      The glycemic index measures the rate at which certain foods are broken down into glucose and how they affect blood sugar levels. Accordingly, pure glucose has a glycemic index of 100, and the index of other foods is determined relative to it.

      Eating foods with a low glycemic index maintains lower blood sugar levels and therefore lower levels of insulin required for processing. Conversely, when eating foods with a high glycemic index or constant eating, there is a sharp rise in blood sugar.

      The glycemic index is important when compiling a balanced and healthy menu, but it should not be the only factor for including or excluding foods or groups of foods in one diet.

      The glycemic index of individual foods changes when they are combined. For example, when carbohydrates are combined with vegetables, proteins and fats, the glycemic index is different.

      Potatoes, for example, are often avoided by people with insulin resistance. But potatoes, in combination with useful fats and vegetables, are digested more slowly and, accordingly, have a lower glycemic index.

      Because foods with the same glycemic index can affect blood sugar levels differently, an additional measure related to the glycemic index, the glycemic load of food, is used.

      In the tables below you can see a comparative table of the glycemic index and glycemic load of some of the most commonly consumed foods from major food groups.

      Cereals and starchy vegetables Approximate glycemic index Approximate glycemic load
      White rice - cooked (150g) 89 43
      Boiled potatoes (200g) 82 25
      White bread (30g) 71 10
      Sweet potato (150g) 70 22
      Oatmeal (250g) 55 13
      Brown rice - cooked (150g) 50 16
      Fruit Approximate glycemic index Approximate glycemic load
      Melon 120g 72 4
      Bananas 120 g 62 16
      Grapes 60g 64 28
      Oranges 120g 40 4
      Peaches 120g 38 4
      Apples 120g 39 6
      Sweeteners Approximate glycemic index Approximate glycemic load
      White sugar 2 tsp 63 6
      Honey 1 tbsp 58 10
      Vegetables Approximate glycemic index Approximate glycemic load
      Carrots 80g 35 2
      Peas 80g 51 4
      Dairy products Approximate glycemic index Approximate glycemic load
      Fresh milk - low fat 250ml 32 4
      Yogurt - low fat 200g 33 11
      Protein Approximate glycemic index Approximate glycemic load
      Lentils 150g 29 5
      Bob 150g 40 6
      Chickpeas 150g 10 3
      Quinoa 150g 53 13

      Low, medium and high glycemic index

      Foods with low glycemic index - under 55 are: whole grain bread, whole grain oatmeal, peas, carrots, legumes, lentils, small berries, low-starch vegetables, yogurt and milk, nuts.

      Foods with an average glycemic index of 56-69, which you can consume, but it is good to limit insulin resistance, these are: brown rice, bananas, grapes.

      High glycemic index, over 70 have: pumpkin, pineapple, dried fruit and white bread. In case of insulin resistance, it is recommended to avoid the consumption of these foods, or to consume them in consumption with others, which will delay their absorption.

      Insulin resistance and weight loss
      Insulin is responsible for storing fat in the cells, in many cases for weight gain and a number of health problems. Therefore, it is important to keep your insulin levels within normal limits.

      If you are at risk or suffering from insulin resistance and want to lose weight, improve your condition and look better, it is important to avoid extreme diets, whose long-term effect, in most cases, is negative and deprives your body of important nutrients.

      The rapid and drastic reduction of calories (starvation) provokes the body to enter a protective mode of operation. Due to the lack of enough energy to be obtained through food, the body slows down its life processes, including metabolism. This causes a greater accumulation of fat in the body, which in turn increases the risk of the so-called metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes.

      Choose a regimen that is tailored to your health, preferences and lifestyle. If you suffer from insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, or are at risk of developing these conditions, our specialists will prepare for you the right diet that will be consistent with your goals and health. Constant connection and support is extremely important. In the personal profile you will be able to ask us an unlimited number of questions and be sure that you will receive the information and support you need.

      Frequently asked questions about insulin resistance
      What is insulin resistance?

      This is a condition in which the body does not respond properly to the insulin that the pancreas produces.

      What are the symptoms of insulin resistance?

      Some of the signs that accompany insulin resistance are high blood pressure, high blood sugar levels, increased waist circumference, elevated triglyceride levels, low levels of "good" cholesterol.

      What are the risk factors?

      Risk factors include age, obesity, stagnant lifestyle, smoking, lack of physical activity, family history, polycystic ovaries, gestational diabetes.

      How to prevent the development of insulin resistance?

      The best we can do for our health is to change our diet, keep our weight within healthy limits and include regular physical activity.

      What to eat in case of insulin resistance?

      Low glycemic index foods are recommended, as well as foods that soothe systemic sources of inflammation.

      What are the complications that can occur with insulin resistance?

      Complications may include the following conditions: atherosclerosis, diabetes, heart attack, kidney disease, stroke, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, peripheral arterial disease, cardiovascular disease.

      How to lose weight with insulin resistance?

      It is recommended that you avoid fast diets that do not take into account your condition and deprive you of valuable nutrients - they can even worsen your condition. It is recommended to follow an individual diet prepared by a specialist.

      Source: https://www.topforma.bg/articles/insulinova_rezistentnost/

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